A press release constitutes a lie provided that no less than one of the interlocutors knows it to be untrue, but insists or assumes that it's true. If all of the events concerned in the exchange know that the statement is fake or if none of them know whether or not it is false or true, then it's fiction or an act of religion.
Lies are about info or about states of being. Lies that pertain to info can't be rendered true by widespread consensus. However with regards to lies about states of being, if the parties agree something to be the reality their agreement can make it true (alter its truth worth). That is so because statements about states of being are dependent on social context.
Lies either prompt action or inhibit it. Generally, actions taken can convert the lie into a fact (self-fulfilling lie).
There are eight sorts of lies:
1. Utilitarian: a lie that's supposed to perform something, a lie that is purpose-oriented, a lie whose construction and content material are planned to advertise or encourage changes conducive to the furtherance of the liar’s aims and aspirations;
2. Smokescreen: a lie whose objective is to obscure, conceal, or remove true data and thus mislead others (widespread in espionage or military operations);
three. Compassionate: a lie that is geared in direction of sparing different individuals’s emotions, catering to their sensitivities and vulnerabilities, and allowing them to save lots of face and keep away from shame and embarrassment. Most white lies are compassionate and empathic;
4. Ceremonial: lies and dissimulations whose operate is to ascertain a pecking order by demonstrating reverence and glossing over facts and behaviors that inconveniently contravene the accepted hierarchy. Manners and etiquette are extremely-elaborate types of ceremonial mendacity;
5. Compensatory: lies which are used to disguise the oft-humiliating incontrovertible fact that we have no idea the truth or can’t bear in mind it. Lies of this type quantity to fiction, however with a lot of the interlocutors being unaware of it;
6. Confabulatory: intricate lies that weave a fabric of alternate actuality which is incessantly an exaggerated type of the liar’s traits, conduct, and personal history (although it may, in fact, be completely unrelated to anything real within the confabulator’s life).
7. Inferential: fallacious conclusions or extrapolations based on true assumptions or statements. Most rational fallacies are inferential lies.
8. Hybrid: lies that contain markers of an occult reality or pathways to true data, permitting its recipients to “read between the traces”. Hybrid lies are common in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes.
A research of confabulation in pathological narcissism:
Confabulations are an essential a part of life. They serve to heal emotional wounds or to forestall ones from being inflicted within the first place. They prop-up the confabulator's vanity, regulate his (or her) sense of self-worth, and buttress his (or her) self-picture. They serve as organizing rules in social interactions.
Father's wartime heroism, mom's youthful attractiveness, one's oft-recounted exploits, erstwhile alleged brilliance, and previous purported sexual irresistibility - are typical examples of white, fuzzy, coronary heart-warming lies wrapped around a shriveled kernel of truth.
However the distinction between actuality and fantasy is never fully misplaced. Deep inside, the wholesome confabulator is aware of the place facts finish and wishful pondering takes over. Father acknowledges he was no battle hero, though he did his share of fighting. Mom understands she was no ravishing magnificence, although she might have been attractive. The confabulator realizes that his recounted exploits are overblown, his brilliance exaggerated, and his sexual irresistibility a delusion.
Such distinctions never rise to the floor because everybody - the confabulator and his audience alike - have a standard curiosity to take care of the confabulation. To problem the integrity of the confabulator or the veracity of his confabulations is to threaten the very material of household